Papers, Reports, and Articles
Background Paper on the Fundamentals of a National Youth Policy (127kb) (International Council on National Youth Policy, 2001). This paper is meant to be used for advisory services to governments, nongovernmental and/or community-based organizations, and to provide capacity building for integrated and cross-sectoral national youth policies and programs of action.
Commitments: Youth Reproductive Health, the World Bank, and the Millennium Development Goals (332kb) (The Global Health Council, 2004). This report aims to further the case for youth reproductive health as essential to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It also identifies the comparative advantage of the World Bank to reduce poverty and promote youth reproductive health. One of its recommendations is that the World Bank convenes and conducts a high-level policy dialogue in support of youth and the MDGs. It encourages the Bank to further its efforts to promote the meaningful participation of young people in policy dialogue, health reform and national poverty eradication planning.
||Economic Strengthening for Vulnerable Children: Principles of Program Design and Technical Recommendations for Effective Field Interventions (AED, 2008, 70pp). The multi-faceted nature of child vulnerability–whether due to such epidemics as HIV/AIDS, conflict, natural disasters, extreme poverty, or a host of other contextual factors–is reflected in the wide spectrum of professional disciplines that have mobilized to address it. Among these, economic strengthening is gaining in importance and prominence, with few experts working to reduce child vulnerability in doubt that poverty is a major contributor to the challenges they face. This guide begins to fill the gap that may exist at the intersecton of the various disciplines.
Evidence Base for Programming for Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in Low Prevalence and Concentrated Epidemic Countries (Quality Assurance Project, March 2008, 150p). The specific objectives of this study are to: 1) review, analyze, and document the situation of children affected by HIV/AIDS in low prevalence and concentrated epidemic settings related to health, nutrition, education, protection, placement, psychosocial and cognitive development as well as socioeconomic status and experiences with HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination; 2) review, analyze, and document evidence on interventions to support children affected by HIV and AIDS in low prevalence and concentrated HIV epidemic areas; 3) summarize the extent of the evidence base,; and 4) formulate and prioritize practical recommendations to strengthen the evidence base for programming on affected children.
Factors Influencing Transactional Sex Among Young Men and Women in 12 Sub-Saharan African Countries (155kb) (POLICY Project, 2004). To begin to protect young men and young women from the heightened risk of HIV, policymakers and program managers should gain a better understanding of transactional sex among youth. This study analyzes data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 12 sub-Saharan African countries. It explores whether adolescent boys and girls are at higher risk for engaging in transactional sex than older men and women, and examines the relationship between young men and young women's individual socio-demographic characteristics and the probability that they will engage in the exchange of sex for money.
How young is "too young"? Comparative perspectives on adolescent sexual, marital, and reproductive transitions (by R. Dixon-Mueller in Studies in Family Planning (Special Issue on Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Sub-Saharan Africa) 2008;39(4):247–62) This study suggests three criteria for assessing the extent to which the timing of sexual, marital, and reproductive transitions among male and female adolescents could be considered "too young": (1) the physiological maturation of the body; (2) the cognitive capacity for making safe, informed, and voluntary decisions; and (3) institutionalized concepts of "old enough" for consent to sexual intercourse and marriage as reflected in legal frameworks and international standards. The author proposes expanding the age grouping of adolescence, from the customary 15–19, into three age categories — early adolescence (ages 10–14, or 10–11 and 12–14), middle adolescence (15–17), and late adolescence (18–19) — to better capture the age-specific variations in the trajectories of male and female sexual, marital, and reproductive events. … Policies and programs should focus on building capacity and creating an enabling environment for making safe and voluntary transitions among all age groups, but particularly among 10- to 14-year-olds, whose sexual and reproductive health and rights are at stake.
Implementing Adolescent Reproductive Rights Through the Convention on the Rights of the Child (249kb) (Center for Reproductive Rights, 1999). This short publication provides a framework for looking at the reproductive rights of adolescents and gives examples of best practices in policy making from around the world.
Importance of Choice and Definition for the Measurement of Child Poverty—the case of Vietnam in Child Indicators Research Online First 2009.(10.1007/s12187-008-9028-0) Increased attention to childrens’ special position within poverty measurement resulted in the development of various child poverty approaches in the last decade. Analysis shows that their development processes involve a similar set of steps and decisions, predominantly taken in the same sequence. However, it also becomes apparent that many of these decisions are made implicitly rather than explicitly, resulting in unclear and non-transparent underlying constructs. Consequently, child poverty approaches often lack a solid and robust foundation and are misinterpreted and misunderstood when used for analytical and policy purposes. This paper distills a generic construction process from the analysis of existing child poverty approaches, presenting a tool for clear and transparent development of such approaches. It is then applied to the case of Vietnam.
Improving the Education Response to HIV and AIDS: Lessons of partner efforts in coordination, harmonisation, alignment, information sharing and monitoring in Jamaica, Kenya, Thailand and Zambia (810kb) (UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Education, 2008).This report synthesises case study exercises undertaken to examine the quality, effectiveness and coordination of the education sector’s response to the HIV epidemic in four countries – Jamaica, Kenya, Thailand and Zambia. In each country, stakeholders assessed: critical achievements and gaps in the education sector response to HIV and AIDS; the evolution and effectiveness of coordination mechanisms and structures; progress toward harmonisation and alignment; information-sharing on HIV & AIDS and education; key resources for the response; and monitoring and evaluation. This report presents the overall findings from the study and makes recommendations for the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Education and its partners to improve coordination in support of country level and global actions. Detailed information on the results for each country is included in appendices of this report.
Including Married Adolescents in Adolescent Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS Policy (555kb)(Population Council, 2004). The paper gives an explanation for why married adolescents have so often been overlooked, and articulates the reasons why marriage, and particularly early marriage, might bring elevated risk of HIV. It discuss gaps in HIV/AIDS policies for married adolescents, the implications and provide initial analytic tools to assist policymakers in determining how to accord appropriate levels of priority to the marriage process and married adolescents in HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. The paper also offers a menu of potential policy interventions and actions to make married adolescents an integral part of reproductive health and HIV prevention initiatives.
International Human Right: Sexuality Education for Adolescents in Schools (Center for Reproductive Rights, 2008, 7pp) This document discusses governments' obligation under international human rights law to provide school-based sexuality education that is scientifically accurate and objective and free of prejudice and discrimination.
Investing in Young People’s Health and Development: Research that Improves Policies and Programs (2-page overview of International Conference, April 2008). The conference was held in Abuja, Nigeria, and hosted by the Bill and Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health with its Nigeria partners, the Center for Population and Reproductive Health at the University of Ibadan and the Department of Community Health at Obafemi Awolowo University. At the conference, more than 160 experts shared the results of their research and program efforts on population, development, sexual and reproductive health, poverty reduction and gender equity issues as these affect young people. PowerPoint slides and abstracts from presentations at the conference, as well as poster abstracts, are available on this conference Web site.
Legislative and Policy Environment for Adolescent Health in Latin America and the Caribbean (1.19MB) (Rosalia Rodriguez-Garcia, Jill S. Russell, Matilde Maddaleno, and Mariana Kastrinakis, 1999). This document presents the results of the Adolescent Health Policy Project supported by the Adolescent Health Program of the Pan American Health Organization and by the George Washington University Center for International Health.
||Meeting Young Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Nigeria (Guttmacher Institute , 2009, 24pp). This report focuses on the reproductive health status and needs of young women aged 15–19 in Nigeria, drawing mainly on findings from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys of 1990 and 2003 and on unstructured interviews with key stakeholders in the government and NGOs involved in promoting adolescent reproductive health in the country. It assesses the current status of and recent trends in the sexual and reproductive behaviors and health needs of these women. It also examines social and health policies and programs addressing such needs and highlights the gaps in policies and services that suggest priority areas for improving the implementation of adolescent sexual and reproductive health and development policies.
Policies for Orphans and Vulnerable Children: A Framework for Moving Ahead (1.01MB) (POLICY Project, 2003). This document summarizes the global OVC situation and identifies policy-level gaps in national responses to the growing crisis. Importantly, the report proposes a country-level OVC "policy package" and offers recommendations to guide future policy dialogue and action. Adopting laws that protect the rights of all children, encouraging multisectoral collaboration, placing a special emphasis on educational opportunities, and establishing systems to identify the most vulnerable children are all crucial aspects of a comprehensive OVC policy response.
Also available in French.(1.04MB)
Rapid Analysis of Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) and HIV/AIDS-related Policies in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Uganda (535kb) (Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat for East, Central and Southern Africa, 2002). This report describes existing adolescent reproductive health and HIV/AIDS policies in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Uganda. Report findings are based on key informant interviews collected in the three countries, as well as research of strategic plans, guidelines, and analyses.
Reducing Adolescent Girls' Vulnerability to HIV Infection: Examining Microfinance and Sustainable Livelihood Approaches--A Literature and Program Review (USAID|Health Policy Inititative, July 2008). This literature and program review focused on the current and future role of microfinance and sustainable livelihood strategies in reducing adolescent girls' vulnerability to HIV infection in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Part 1 of this literature and program review focuses on youth-centered programs to prevent HIV infection among vulnerable female adolescents--including microfinance (MF) and sustainable livelihood programs. Part 2 analyzes the relationship between microfinance and HIV prevention in the general population, with a focus on women and the oldest adolescents in the target group. Adapting the traditional microfinance model to meet the need sof this sub-group could prove to benefit not only these adolescents but also the microfinance industry.
Regional Symposium on Harmonisation of Laws on Children in Eastern and Southern Africa (Proceedings of Conference, May 2007). The conference was held in Nairobi, Kenya. The African Child Policy Forum considered a project to examine the harmonisation of national legislation on laws on children with the CRC and ACRWC. This idea followed concerns raised at the International Policy Conference on the African Child and the Family organized by the African Child Policy Forum in May 2004, which brought together participants from governments, international agencies and over 130 NGOs from around Africa and beyond. A recommendation from that Conference was the need to harmonise national laws including the appropriate incorporation of customary laws and to encourage the sharing of experiences with harmonisation. In a response to this recommendation, a project was subsequently conceived and implemented with the support and collaboration of the UNICEF Regional Office for Eastern and Southern Africa Office (ESARO) based in Nairobi. The project involved a review of laws and experiences in harmonisation in 18 Eastern and Southern African countries which included Botswana, Burundi, Comoros, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
In addition to the Proceedings report, other reports on the Harmonisation of Laws are available. Presentations from the conference, are available on this Web site.
Sexuality Education in Schools: The International Experience and Implications for Nigeria (161kb)(POLICY Project, 2004). Nigeria is in the early stages of carrying out its new national policy on sexuality and reproductive health education. Worldwide, school-based programs are an important element of efforts to improve the reproductive health of young people. This paper reviews the international experience and its implications for Nigeria.
State of Denial: Adolescent Reproductive Rights in Zimbabwe (Center for Reproductive Rights and the Child and Law Foundation, 2002). This report documents legal, policy, and social barriers that adolescents in Zimbabwe face in realizing their international human right.
State of the World Population 2004. The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and The Global Effort to End Poverty (1.72MB) (UNFPA, 2004). This report highlights the progress made since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. The chapter on adolescents and young people highlights a number of countries that have passed laws, drafted new constitutions or approved amendments to legal codes that protect and promote adolescents' rights, including their right to reproductive health care.
State of World Population 2003. Making One Billion Count: Investing in Adolescents' Health and Rights (UNFPA, 2003). The State of World Population 2003 report examines the challenges and risks faced by the 1.2 billion adolescents that affect directly their physical, emotional, and mental well-being. The 80-page report stresses that increasing the knowledge, opportunities, choices, and participation of young people will enable them to lead healthy and productive lives. Selected topics include gender inequality, HIV/AIDS, health behavior, reproductive health care, examples of comprehensive programs, and giving priority to adolescents.
Strategic Directions for Improving the Health and Development of Children and Adolescents (WHO, 2003). WHO developed the Strategic Directions for Improving the Health and Development of Children and Adolescents in response to a global call for renewed and intensified action to promote and protect the health and development of the 0 – 19 years old age group. The document is intended to contribute to the definition of a new and common agenda for children and adolescents with Member States and partners, and to guide the work within the Organization.
World Youth Report 2007 (7630KB) (UN, 2007). The World Youth Report 2007 examines the challenges and opportunities existing for the roughly 1.2 billion young people between the ages of 15 and 24 in the world. Distinct from the 2003 and 2005 editions, it provides a regional overview summarizing the major youth development trends in the fifteen priority areas of the World Programme of Action for Youth. The report explores major issues of concern to youth development, including employment, education, health, poverty and violence. At the same time, it highlights youth as a positive force for development and provides recommendations for supporting their essential contributions.
Youth Supplement to UNFPA’s State of the World Population Report 2008 (UNFPA, 2008, 56p). This is the third edition of the Youth Supplement to UNFPA’s State of the World Population Report. The 2008 Report focuses on the interactions among culture, gender, and human rights and the critical importance of culturally sensitive approaches for effective development policies and programmes. The Youth Supplement addresses culture as it shapes and nurtures the lives of young people and shows how young people develop their own subcultures, which are often different from and may conflict with the dominant culture. The Supplement points out the value to young people of protecting the culture in which they grew up, but it speaks on behalf of their right to embrace their own cultures in their own ways.